The Fat Lady Slims

Question 404

What is Metabolic Syndrome?


Wikipedia: Metabolic Syndrome

Welborn, T. A., & Wearne, K. (1979). Coronary heart disease incidence and cardiovascular mortality in Busselton with reference to glucose and insulin concentrations. Diabetes care, 2(2), 154–60.

Alberti, K. G. M. M., Eckel, R. H., Grundy, S. M., Zimmet, P. Z., Cleeman, J. I., Donato, K. a, Fruchart, J.-C., et al. (2009). Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation, 120(16), 1640–5. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192644

"Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of common cancers" Esposito, K., Chiodini, P., Colao, A., Lenzi, A., & Giugliano, D. (2012). Metabolic syndrome and risk of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes care, 35(11), 2402–11. doi:10.2337/dc12-0336

"The accumulating epidemiological evidence, direct clinical evidence, and the evidence suggesting plausible mechanisms support a role for sugar in the epidemics of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes." Stanhope, K. L., Schwarz, J.-M., & Havel, P. J. (2013). Adverse metabolic effects of dietary fructose: results from the recent epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies. Current opinion in lipidology, 24(3), 198–206. doi:10.1097/MOL.0b013e3283613bca

"About 10% of the variance of [metabolic syndrome] appears to be explained by genetic susceptibility leaving about 90% to changes in the environment and/or to epigenetic interactions …high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets are protective against [Metabolic Syndrome]…Currently, the only options to prevent [metabolic syndrome] are …caloric restriction… improves insulin sensitivity and reduces liver fat accumulation… reducing glycemic load…by increasing the fiber content of food… Increase in substrate clearance… by exercise." Bremer, A. A., Mietus-Snyder, M., & Lustig, R. H. (2012). Toward a unifying hypothesis of metabolic syndrome. Pediatrics, 129(3), 557–70. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-2912

"The results support the use of dietary carbohydrate restriction as an effective approach to improve features of MetS and cardiovascular risk." Volek, J. S., Phinney, S. D., Forsythe, C. E., Quann, E. E., Wood, R. J., Puglisi, M. J., Kraemer, W. J., et al. (2009).Carbohydrate restriction has a more favorable impact on the metabolic syndrome than a low fat diet. Lipids, 44(4), 297–309. doi:10.1007/s11745-008-3274-2