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" insulin plays an important role in sodium metabolism... Increases in plasma insulin concentration .. stimulate sodium reabsorption by the distal nephron segments .. Several clinical situations are reviewed: sodium wasting in poorly controlled diabetics, natriuresis of starvation, anti-natriuresis of refeeding and hypertension of obesity, in which insulin-mediated changes in sodium balance have been shown to play an important pathophysiological role." DeFronzo, R. A. (1981). The effect of insulin on renal sodium metabolism. Diabetologia, 21(3). doi:10.1007/BF00252649
"... measuring fasting and postprandial vascular function in 40 overweight men and women with moderate hypertriacylglycerolemia who were randomly assigned to consume hypocaloric diets (∼1500 kcal) restricted in carbohydrate (CRD)(percentage of carbohydrate-fat-protein = 12:59:28) or LFD (56:24:20)… 12 weeks. Compared with the LFD, the CRD resulted in a greater decrease in postprandial triacylglycerol , insulin , and lymphocyte responses. Postprandial fatty acids were significantly increased by the CRD compared with the LFD … These findings show that a 12-week low-carbohydrate diet improves postprandial vascular function more than a LFD in individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia." Volek, J. S., Ballard, K. D., Silvestre, R., Judelson, D. a, Quann, E. E., Forsythe, C. E., Fernandez, M. L., et al. (2009). Effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction versus low-fat diet on flow-mediated dilation. Metabolism: clinical and experimental, 58(12), 1769–77. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2009.06.005
"Twenty women completed an 8-week trial that reduced their daily carbohydrate intake from 232 to 71 g ... Systolic blood pressure decreased by an average of 9.0 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure decreased by 7 mmHg . Therefore, carbohydrate restriction to 70 g or less ...promotes.. improvements in .. blood pressure ... in moderately overweight women." Meckling, K. A., Gauthier, M., Grubb, R., & Sanford, J. (2002). Effects of a hypocaloric, low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss, blood lipids, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and body composition in free-living overweight women. Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology, 80(11), 1095–105. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12489929
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